unlawful acts

There is breach of contract and there are unlawful acts. Breach of contract means that a contract was not (thoroughly) fulfilled. An unlawful act is the breaking of the law, or an act or omission in conflict with the law or standards of decency (article 6:162 BW). Rights that can be breached are, among others, the right to protection of life & limb (personal injury), property rights (property damage), privacy, copyright (to software etc.), trademarks, brands and logos. Breaches of brand rights, for example, might be infringing metatags, keywords and adwords in which someone else uses your trademark or a similar mark. Protection of some intellectual and ICT rights is governed by specific law and legislation, such as the Copyright Act 1912 and the Benelux Treaty on Intellectual Property (BVIE).

More exotic forms such as (enticement to) gambling on the internet, search engine misdirection, unlawful acts via the internet, such as spam, insults, nuisance, dissemination of (child) pornography, are forms of unlawful acts. Unlawful acts are a purely civil law issue (between citizens) but it should be clear that criminal law may also step in (between citizen and government). Where urgency is called for, an interim injunction is generally the appropriate form of legal action. In other cases, the main courts and arbitrators adjudicate disputes. The unlawful act is one of the key legal grounds in civil law in demanding damages compensation.